Configure

First you’ll need to configure rclone. As the object storage systems have quite complicated authentication these are kept in a config file .rclone.conf in your home directory by default. (You can use the --config option to choose a different config file.)

The easiest way to make the config is to run rclone with the config option:

rclone config

See the following for detailed instructions for

Usage

Rclone syncs a directory tree from one storage system to another.

Its syntax is like this

Syntax: [options] subcommand <parameters> <parameters...>

Source and destination paths are specified by the name you gave the storage system in the config file then the sub path, eg “drive:myfolder” to look at “myfolder” in Google drive.

You can define as many storage paths as you like in the config file.

Subcommands

rclone copy source:path dest:path

Copy the source to the destination. Doesn’t transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Doesn’t delete files from the destination.

Note that it is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it’s the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents.

If dest:path doesn’t exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

For example

rclone copy source:sourcepath dest:destpath

Let’s say there are two files in sourcepath

sourcepath/one.txt
sourcepath/two.txt

This copies them to

destpath/one.txt
destpath/two.txt

Not to

destpath/sourcepath/one.txt
destpath/sourcepath/two.txt

If you are familiar with rsync, rclone always works as if you had written a trailing / - meaning “copy the contents of this directory”. This applies to all commands and whether you are talking about the source or destination.

See the --no-traverse option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not.

rclone sync source:path dest:path

Sync the source to the destination, changing the destination only. Doesn’t transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Destination is updated to match source, including deleting files if necessary.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run flag to see exactly what would be copied and deleted.

Note that files in the destination won’t be deleted if there were any errors at any point.

It is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it’s the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents. See extended explanation in the copy command above if unsure.

If dest:path doesn’t exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

move source:path dest:path

Moves the contents of the source directory to the destination directory. Rclone will error if the source and destination overlap.

If no filters are in use and if possible this will server side move source:path into dest:path. After this source:path will no longer longer exist.

Otherwise for each file in source:path selected by the filters (if any) this will move it into dest:path. If possible a server side move will be used, otherwise it will copy it (server side if possible) into dest:path then delete the original (if no errors on copy) in source:path.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the –dry-run flag.

rclone ls remote:path

List all the objects in the path with size and path.

rclone lsd remote:path

List all directories/containers/buckets in the the path.

rclone lsl remote:path

List all the objects in the the path with modification time, size and path.

rclone md5sum remote:path

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard md5sum tool produces.

rclone sha1sum remote:path

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard sha1sum tool produces.

rclone size remote:path

Prints the total size of objects in remote:path and the number of objects.

rclone mkdir remote:path

Make the path if it doesn’t already exist

rclone rmdir remote:path

Remove the path. Note that you can’t remove a path with objects in it, use purge for that.

rclone purge remote:path

Remove the path and all of its contents. Note that this does not obey include/exclude filters - everything will be removed. Use delete if you want to selectively delete files.

rclone delete remote:path

Remove the contents of path. Unlike purge it obeys include/exclude filters so can be used to selectively delete files.

Eg delete all files bigger than 100MBytes

Check what would be deleted first (use either)

rclone --min-size 100M lsl remote:path
rclone --dry-run --min-size 100M delete remote:path

Then delete

rclone --min-size 100M delete remote:path

That reads “delete everything with a minimum size of 100 MB”, hence delete all files bigger than 100MBytes.

rclone check source:path dest:path

Checks the files in the source and destination match. It compares sizes and MD5SUMs and prints a report of files which don’t match. It doesn’t alter the source or destination.

--size-only may be used to only compare the sizes, not the MD5SUMs.

rclone cleanup remote:path

Clean up the remote if possible. Empty the trash or delete old file versions. Not supported by all remotes.

rclone dedupe remote:path

By default dedup interactively finds duplicate files and offers to delete all but one or rename them to be different. Only useful with Google Drive which can have duplicate file names.

The dedupe command will delete all but one of any identical (same md5sum) files it finds without confirmation. This means that for most duplicated files the dedupe command will not be interactive. You can use --dry-run to see what would happen without doing anything.

Here is an example run.

Before - with duplicates

$ rclone lsl drive:dupes
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:11.775000000 one.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:18:26.092000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two.txt
  1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two.txt

Now the dedupe session

$ rclone dedupe drive:dupes
2016/03/05 16:24:37 Google drive root 'dupes': Looking for duplicates using interactive mode.
one.txt: Found 4 duplicates - deleting identical copies
one.txt: Deleting 2/3 identical duplicates (md5sum "1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36")
one.txt: 2 duplicates remain
  1:      6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000, md5sum 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36
  2:       564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000, md5sum 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81
s) Skip and do nothing
k) Keep just one (choose which in next step)
r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg)
s/k/r> k
Enter the number of the file to keep> 1
one.txt: Deleted 1 extra copies
two.txt: Found 3 duplicates - deleting identical copies
two.txt: 3 duplicates remain
  1:       564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000, md5sum 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81
  2:      6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000, md5sum 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36
  3:      1744073 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000, md5sum 851957f7fb6f0bc4ce76be966d336802
s) Skip and do nothing
k) Keep just one (choose which in next step)
r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg)
s/k/r> r
two-1.txt: renamed from: two.txt
two-2.txt: renamed from: two.txt
two-3.txt: renamed from: two.txt

The result being

$ rclone lsl drive:dupes
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two-1.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two-2.txt
  1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two-3.txt

Dedupe can be run non interactively using the --dedupe-mode flag.

  • --dedupe-mode interactive - interactive as above.
  • --dedupe-mode skip - removes identical files then skips anything left.
  • --dedupe-mode first - removes identical files then keeps the first one.
  • --dedupe-mode newest - removes identical files then keeps the newest one.
  • --dedupe-mode oldest - removes identical files then keeps the oldest one.
  • --dedupe-mode rename - removes identical files then renames the rest to be different.

For example to rename all the identically named photos in your Google Photos directory, do

rclone dedupe --dedupe-mode rename "drive:Google Photos"

rclone config

Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone help

Prints help on rclone commands and options.

Copying single files

rclone normally syncs or copies directories. However if the source remote points to a file, rclone will just copy that file. The destination remote must point to a directory - rclone will give the error Failed to create file system for "remote:file": is a file not a directory if it isn’t.

For example, suppose you have a remote with a file in called test.jpg, then you could copy just that file like this

rclone copy remote:test.jpg /tmp/download

The file test.jpg will be placed inside /tmp/download.

This is equivalent to specifying

rclone copy --no-traverse --files-from /tmp/files remote: /tmp/download

Where /tmp/files contains the single line

test.jpg

It is recommended to use copy when copying single files not sync. They have pretty much the same effect but copy will use a lot less memory.

Quoting and the shell

When you are typing commands to your computer you are using something called the command line shell. This interprets various characters in an OS specific way.

Here are some gotchas which may help users unfamiliar with the shell rules

Linux / OSX

If your names have spaces or shell metacharacters (eg *, ?, $, ', " etc) then you must quote them. Use single quotes ' by default.

rclone copy 'Important files?' remote:backup

If you want to send a ' you will need to use ", eg

rclone copy "O'Reilly Reviews" remote:backup

The rules for quoting metacharacters are complicated and if you want the full details you’ll have to consult the manual page for your shell.

Windows

If your names have spaces in you need to put them in ", eg

rclone copy "E:\folder name\folder name\folder name" remote:backup

If you are using the root directory on its own then don’t quote it (see #464 for why), eg

rclone copy E:\ remote:backup

Server Side Copy

Drive, S3, Dropbox, Swift and Google Cloud Storage support server side copy.

This means if you want to copy one folder to another then rclone won’t download all the files and re-upload them; it will instruct the server to copy them in place.

Eg

rclone copy s3:oldbucket s3:newbucket

Will copy the contents of oldbucket to newbucket without downloading and re-uploading.

Remotes which don’t support server side copy (eg local) will download and re-upload in this case.

Server side copies are used with sync and copy and will be identified in the log when using the -v flag.

Server side copies will only be attempted if the remote names are the same.

This can be used when scripting to make aged backups efficiently, eg

rclone sync remote:current-backup remote:previous-backup
rclone sync /path/to/files remote:current-backup

Options

Rclone has a number of options to control its behaviour.

Options which use TIME use the go time parser. A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as “300ms”, “-1.5h” or “2h45m”. Valid time units are “ns”, “us” (or “µs”), “ms”, “s”, “m”, “h”.

Options which use SIZE use kByte by default. However a suffix of b for bytes, k for kBytes, M for MBytes and G for GBytes may be used. These are the binary units, eg 1, 2**10, 2**20, 2**30 respectively.

–bwlimit=SIZE

Bandwidth limit in kBytes/s, or use suffix b|k|M|G. The default is 0 which means to not limit bandwidth.

For example to limit bandwidth usage to 10 MBytes/s use --bwlimit 10M

This only limits the bandwidth of the data transfer, it doesn’t limit the bandwith of the directory listings etc.

–checkers=N

The number of checkers to run in parallel. Checkers do the equality checking of files during a sync. For some storage systems (eg s3, swift, dropbox) this can take a significant amount of time so they are run in parallel.

The default is to run 8 checkers in parallel.

-c, –checksum

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check the file hash and size to determine if files are equal.

This is useful when the remote doesn’t support setting modified time and a more accurate sync is desired than just checking the file size.

This is very useful when transferring between remotes which store the same hash type on the object, eg Drive and Swift. For details of which remotes support which hash type see the table in the overview section.

Eg rclone --checksum sync s3:/bucket swift:/bucket would run much quicker than without the --checksum flag.

When using this flag, rclone won’t update mtimes of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

–config=CONFIG_FILE

Specify the location of the rclone config file. Normally this is in your home directory as a file called .rclone.conf. If you run rclone -h and look at the help for the --config option you will see where the default location is for you. Use this flag to override the config location, eg rclone --config=".myconfig" .config.

–contimeout=TIME

Set the connection timeout. This should be in go time format which looks like 5s for 5 seconds, 10m for 10 minutes, or 3h30m.

The connection timeout is the amount of time rclone will wait for a connection to go through to a remote object storage system. It is 1m by default.

–dedupe-mode MODE

Mode to run dedupe command in. One of interactive, skip, first, newest, oldest, rename. The default is interactive. See the dedupe command for more information as to what these options mean.

-n, –dry-run

Do a trial run with no permanent changes. Use this to see what rclone would do without actually doing it. Useful when setting up the sync command which deletes files in the destination.

–ignore-existing

Using this option will make rclone unconditionally skip all files that exist on the destination, no matter the content of these files.

While this isn’t a generally recommended option, it can be useful in cases where your files change due to encryption. However, it cannot correct partial transfers in case a transfer was interrupted.

–ignore-size

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the modification time. If --checksum is set then it only checks the checksum.

It will also cause rclone to skip verifying the sizes are the same after transfer.

This can be useful for transferring files to and from onedrive which occasionally misreports the size of image files (see #399 for more info).

-I, –ignore-times

Using this option will cause rclone to unconditionally upload all files regardless of the state of files on the destination.

Normally rclone would skip any files that have the same modification time and are the same size (or have the same checksum if using --checksum).

–log-file=FILE

Log all of rclone’s output to FILE. This is not active by default. This can be useful for tracking down problems with syncs in combination with the -v flag. See the Logging section for more info.

–low-level-retries NUMBER

This controls the number of low level retries rclone does.

A low level retry is used to retry a failing operation - typically one HTTP request. This might be uploading a chunk of a big file for example. You will see low level retries in the log with the -v flag.

This shouldn’t need to be changed from the default in normal operations, however if you get a lot of low level retries you may wish to reduce the value so rclone moves on to a high level retry (see the --retries flag) quicker.

Disable low level retries with --low-level-retries 1.

–max-depth=N

This modifies the recursion depth for all the commands except purge.

So if you do rclone --max-depth 1 ls remote:path you will see only the files in the top level directory. Using --max-depth 2 means you will see all the files in first two directory levels and so on.

For historical reasons the lsd command defaults to using a --max-depth of 1 - you can override this with the command line flag.

You can use this command to disable recursion (with --max-depth 1).

Note that if you use this with sync and --delete-excluded the files not recursed through are considered excluded and will be deleted on the destination. Test first with --dry-run if you are not sure what will happen.

–modify-window=TIME

When checking whether a file has been modified, this is the maximum allowed time difference that a file can have and still be considered equivalent.

The default is 1ns unless this is overridden by a remote. For example OS X only stores modification times to the nearest second so if you are reading and writing to an OS X filing system this will be 1s by default.

This command line flag allows you to override that computed default.

–no-gzip-encoding

Don’t set Accept-Encoding: gzip. This means that rclone won’t ask the server for compressed files automatically. Useful if you’ve set the server to return files with Content-Encoding: gzip but you uploaded compressed files.

There is no need to set this in normal operation, and doing so will decrease the network transfer efficiency of rclone.

–no-update-modtime

When using this flag, rclone won’t update modification times of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

This can be used if the remote is being synced with another tool also (eg the Google Drive client).

-q, –quiet

Normally rclone outputs stats and a completion message. If you set this flag it will make as little output as possible.

–retries int

Retry the entire sync if it fails this many times it fails (default 3).

Some remotes can be unreliable and a few retries helps pick up the files which didn’t get transferred because of errors.

Disable retries with --retries 1.

–size-only

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the size.

This can be useful transferring files from dropbox which have been modified by the desktop sync client which doesn’t set checksums of modification times in the same way as rclone.

–stats=TIME

Rclone will print stats at regular intervals to show its progress.

This sets the interval.

The default is 1m. Use 0 to disable.

–delete-(before,during,after)

This option allows you to specify when files on your destination are deleted when you sync folders.

Specifying the value --delete-before will delete all files present on the destination, but not on the source before starting the transfer of any new or updated files. This uses extra memory as it has to store the source listing before proceeding.

Specifying --delete-during (default value) will delete files while checking and uploading files. This is usually the fastest option. Currently this works the same as --delete-after but it may change in the future.

Specifying --delete-after will delay deletion of files until all new/updated files have been successfully transfered.

–timeout=TIME

This sets the IO idle timeout. If a transfer has started but then becomes idle for this long it is considered broken and disconnected.

The default is 5m. Set to 0 to disable.

–transfers=N

The number of file transfers to run in parallel. It can sometimes be useful to set this to a smaller number if the remote is giving a lot of timeouts or bigger if you have lots of bandwidth and a fast remote.

The default is to run 4 file transfers in parallel.

-u, –update

This forces rclone to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source file.

If an existing destination file has a modification time equal (within the computed modify window precision) to the source file’s, it will be updated if the sizes are different.

On remotes which don’t support mod time directly the time checked will be the uploaded time. This means that if uploading to one of these remoes, rclone will skip any files which exist on the destination and have an uploaded time that is newer than the modification time of the source file.

This can be useful when transferring to a remote which doesn’t support mod times directly as it is more accurate than a --size-only check and faster than using --checksum.

-v, –verbose

If you set this flag, rclone will become very verbose telling you about every file it considers and transfers.

Very useful for debugging.

-V, –version

Prints the version number

Configuration Encryption

Your configuration file contains information for logging in to your cloud services. This means that you should keep your .rclone.conf file in a secure location.

If you are in an environment where that isn’t possible, you can add a password to your configuration. This means that you will have to enter the password every time you start rclone.

To add a password to your rclone configuration, execute rclone config.

>rclone config
Current remotes:

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/s/q>

Go into s, Set configuration password:

e/n/d/s/q> s
Your configuration is not encrypted.
If you add a password, you will protect your login information to cloud services.
a) Add Password
q) Quit to main menu
a/q> a
Enter NEW configuration password:
password:
Confirm NEW password:
password:
Password set
Your configuration is encrypted.
c) Change Password
u) Unencrypt configuration
q) Quit to main menu
c/u/q>

Your configuration is now encrypted, and every time you start rclone you will now be asked for the password. In the same menu you can change the password or completely remove encryption from your configuration.

There is no way to recover the configuration if you lose your password.

rclone uses nacl secretbox which in turn uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate your configuration with secret-key cryptography. The password is SHA-256 hashed, which produces the key for secretbox. The hashed password is not stored.

While this provides very good security, we do not recommend storing your encrypted rclone configuration in public if it contains sensitive information, maybe except if you use a very strong password.

If it is safe in your environment, you can set the RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS environment variable to contain your password, in which case it will be used for decrypting the configuration.

If you are running rclone inside a script, you might want to disable password prompts. To do that, pass the parameter --ask-password=false to rclone. This will make rclone fail instead of asking for a password if RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS doesn’t contain a valid password.

Developer options

These options are useful when developing or debugging rclone. There are also some more remote specific options which aren’t documented here which are used for testing. These start with remote name eg --drive-test-option - see the docs for the remote in question.

–cpuprofile=FILE

Write CPU profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof.

–dump-bodies

Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

–dump-filters

Dump the filters to the output. Useful to see exactly what include and exclude options are filtering on.

–dump-headers

Dump HTTP headers - may contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

–memprofile=FILE

Write memory profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof.

–no-check-certificate=true/false

--no-check-certificate controls whether a client verifies the server’s certificate chain and host name. If --no-check-certificate is true, TLS accepts any certificate presented by the server and any host name in that certificate. In this mode, TLS is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks.

This option defaults to false.

This should be used only for testing.

–no-traverse

The --no-traverse flag controls whether the destination file system is traversed when using the copy or move commands.

If you are only copying a small number of files and/or have a large number of files on the destination then --no-traverse will stop rclone listing the destination and save time.

However if you are copying a large number of files, escpecially if you are doing a copy where lots of the files haven’t changed and won’t need copying then you shouldn’t use --no-traverse.

It can also be used to reduce the memory usage of rclone when copying - rclone --no-traverse copy src dst won’t load either the source or destination listings into memory so will use the minimum amount of memory.

Filtering

For the filtering options

  • --delete-excluded
  • --filter
  • --filter-from
  • --exclude
  • --exclude-from
  • --include
  • --include-from
  • --files-from
  • --min-size
  • --max-size
  • --min-age
  • --max-age
  • --dump-filters

See the filtering section.

Logging

rclone has 3 levels of logging, Error, Info and Debug.

By default rclone logs Error and Info to standard error and Debug to standard output. This means you can redirect standard output and standard error to different places.

By default rclone will produce Error and Info level messages.

If you use the -q flag, rclone will only produce Error messages.

If you use the -v flag, rclone will produce Error, Info and Debug messages.

If you use the --log-file=FILE option, rclone will redirect Error, Info and Debug messages along with standard error to FILE.

Exit Code

If any errors occurred during the command, rclone will set a non zero exit code. This allows scripts to detect when rclone operations have failed.

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