Mount the remote as file system on a mountpoint.
rclone mount allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE.
First set up your remote using
rclone config. Check it works with
rclone ls etc.
On Linux and OSX, you can either run mount in foreground mode or background (daemon) mode.
Mount runs in foreground mode by default, use the
--daemon flag to specify background mode.
You can only run mount in foreground mode on Windows.
On Linux/macOS/FreeBSD start the mount like this, where
is an empty existing directory:
rclone mount remote:path/to/files /path/to/local/mount
On Windows you can start a mount in different ways. See below
for details. The following examples will mount to an automatically assigned drive,
to specific drive letter
X:, to path
(where parent directory or drive must exist, and mount must not exist,
and is not supported when mounting as a network drive), and
the last example will mount as network share
\\cloud\remote and map it to an
automatically assigned drive:
rclone mount remote:path/to/files * rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: rclone mount remote:path/to/files C:\path\parent\mount rclone mount remote:path/to/files \\cloud\remote
When the program ends while in foreground mode, either via Ctrl+C or receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM signal, the mount should be automatically stopped.
When running in background mode the user will have to stop the mount manually:
# Linux fusermount -u /path/to/local/mount # OS X umount /path/to/local/mount
The umount operation can fail, for example when the mountpoint is busy. When that happens, it is the user's responsibility to stop the mount manually.
The size of the mounted file system will be set according to information retrieved from the remote, the same as returned by the rclone about command. Remotes with unlimited storage may report the used size only, then an additional 1 PiB of free space is assumed. If the remote does not support the about feature at all, then 1 PiB is set as both the total and the free size.
Note: As of
rclone mount now requires Go version 1.13
or newer on some platforms depending on the underlying FUSE library in use.
To run rclone mount on Windows, you will need to download and install WinFsp.
WinFsp is an open source Windows File System Proxy which makes it easy to write user space file systems for Windows. It provides a FUSE emulation layer which rclone uses combination with cgofuse. Both of these packages are by Bill Zissimopoulos who was very helpful during the implementation of rclone mount for Windows.
Unlike other operating systems, Microsoft Windows provides a different filesystem type for network and fixed drives. It optimises access on the assumption fixed disk drives are fast and reliable, while network drives have relatively high latency and less reliability. Some settings can also be differentiated between the two types, for example that Windows Explorer should just display icons and not create preview thumbnails for image and video files on network drives.
In most cases, rclone will mount the remote as a normal, fixed disk drive by default. However, you can also choose to mount it as a remote network drive, often described as a network share. If you mount an rclone remote using the default, fixed drive mode and experience unexpected program errors, freezes or other issues, consider mounting as a network drive instead.
When mounting as a fixed disk drive you can either mount to an unused drive letter,
or to a path representing a non-existent subdirectory of an existing parent
directory or drive. Using the special value
* will tell rclone to
automatically assign the next available drive letter, starting with Z: and moving backward.
rclone mount remote:path/to/files * rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: rclone mount remote:path/to/files C:\path\parent\mount rclone mount remote:path/to/files X:
--volname can be used to set a custom volume name for the mounted
file system. The default is to use the remote name and path.
To mount as network drive, you can add option
to your mount command. Mounting to a directory path is not supported in
this mode, it is a limitation Windows imposes on junctions, so the remote must always
be mounted to a drive letter.
rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --network-mode
A volume name specified with
--volname will be used to create the network share path.
A complete UNC path, such as
\\cloud\remote, optionally with path
\\cloud\remote\madeup\path, will be used as is. Any other
string will be used as the share part, after a default prefix
If no volume name is specified then
\\server\share will be used.
You must make sure the volume name is unique when you are mounting more than one drive,
or else the mount command will fail. The share name will treated as the volume label for
the mapped drive, shown in Windows Explorer etc, while the complete
\\server\share will be reported as the remote UNC path by
net use etc, just like a normal network drive mapping.
If you specify a full network share UNC path with
--volname, this will implicitely
--network-mode option, so the following two examples have same result:
rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --network-mode rclone mount remote:path/to/files X: --volname \\server\share
You may also specify the network share UNC path as the mountpoint itself. Then rclone
will automatically assign a drive letter, same as with
* and use that as
mountpoint, and instead use the UNC path specified as the volume name, as if it were
specified with the
--volname option. This will also implicitely set
--network-mode option. This means the following two examples have same result:
rclone mount remote:path/to/files \\cloud\remote rclone mount remote:path/to/files * --volname \\cloud\remote
There is yet another way to enable network mode, and to set the share path,
and that is to pass the "native" libfuse/WinFsp option directly:
--fuse-flag --VolumePrefix=\server\share. Note that the path
must be with just a single backslash prefix in this case.
Note: In previous versions of rclone this was the only supported method.
See also Limitations section below.
The FUSE emulation layer on Windows must convert between the POSIX-based permission model used in FUSE, and the permission model used in Windows, based on access-control lists (ACL).
The mounted filesystem will normally get three entries in its access-control list (ACL),
representing permissions for the POSIX permission scopes: Owner, group and others.
By default, the owner and group will be taken from the current user, and the built-in
group "Everyone" will be used to represent others. The user/group can be customized
with FUSE options "UserName" and "GroupName",
-o UserName=user123 -o GroupName="Authenticated Users".
The permissions on each entry will be set according to
which takes a value in traditional numeric notation,
where the default corresponds to
--file-perms 0666 --dir-perms 0777.
Note that the mapping of permissions is not always trivial, and the result you see in Windows Explorer may not be exactly like you expected. For example, when setting a value that includes write access, this will be mapped to individual permissions "write attributes", "write data" and "append data", but not "write extended attributes". Windows will then show this as basic permission "Special" instead of "Write", because "Write" includes the "write extended attributes" permission.
If you set POSIX permissions for only allowing access to the owner, using
--file-perms 0600 --dir-perms 0700, the user group and the built-in "Everyone"
group will still be given some special permissions, such as "read attributes"
and "read permissions", in Windows. This is done for compatibility reasons,
e.g. to allow users without additional permissions to be able to read basic
metadata about files like in UNIX. One case that may arise is that other programs
(incorrectly) interprets this as the file being accessible by everyone. For example
an SSH client may warn about "unprotected private key file".
WinFsp 2021 (version 1.9) introduces a new FUSE option "FileSecurity",
that allows the complete specification of file security descriptors using
With this you can work around issues such as the mentioned "unprotected private key file"
-o FileSecurity="D:P(A;;FA;;;OW)", for file all access (FA) to the owner (OW).
Drives created as Administrator are not visible to other accounts, not even an account that was elevated to Administrator with the User Account Control (UAC) feature. A result of this is that if you mount to a drive letter from a Command Prompt run as Administrator, and then try to access the same drive from Windows Explorer (which does not run as Administrator), you will not be able to see the mounted drive.
If you don't need to access the drive from applications running with administrative privileges, the easiest way around this is to always create the mount from a non-elevated command prompt.
To make mapped drives available to the user account that created them regardless if elevated or not, there is a special Windows setting called linked connections that can be enabled.
It is also possible to make a drive mount available to everyone on the system,
by running the process creating it as the built-in SYSTEM account.
There are several ways to do this: One is to use the command-line
from Microsoft's Sysinternals suite, which has option
-s to start
processes as the SYSTEM account. Another alternative is to run the mount
command from a Windows Scheduled Task, or a Windows Service, configured
to run as the SYSTEM account. A third alternative is to use the
Note that when running rclone as another user, it will not use
the configuration file from your profile unless you tell it to
Read more in the install documentation.
Note that mapping to a directory path, instead of a drive letter, does not suffer from the same limitations.
Without the use of
--vfs-cache-mode this can only write files
sequentially, it can only seek when reading. This means that many
applications won't work with their files on an rclone mount without
--vfs-cache-mode writes or
See the VFS File Caching section for more info.
The bucket based remotes (e.g. Swift, S3, Google Compute Storage, B2, Hubic) do not support the concept of empty directories, so empty directories will have a tendency to disappear once they fall out of the directory cache.
Only supported on Linux, FreeBSD, OS X and Windows at the moment.
File systems expect things to be 100% reliable, whereas cloud storage systems are a long way from 100% reliable. The rclone sync/copy commands cope with this with lots of retries. However rclone mount can't use retries in the same way without making local copies of the uploads. Look at the VFS File Caching for solutions to make mount more reliable.
You can use the flag
--attr-timeout to set the time the kernel caches
the attributes (size, modification time, etc.) for directory entries.
The default is
1s which caches files just long enough to avoid
too many callbacks to rclone from the kernel.
In theory 0s should be the correct value for filesystems which can change outside the control of the kernel. However this causes quite a few problems such as rclone using too much memory, rclone not serving files to samba and excessive time listing directories.
The kernel can cache the info about a file for the time given by
--attr-timeout. You may see corruption if the remote file changes
length during this window. It will show up as either a truncated file
or a file with garbage on the end. With
--attr-timeout 1s this is
very unlikely but not impossible. The higher you set
the more likely it is. The default setting of "1s" is the lowest
setting which mitigates the problems above.
If you set it higher (
1m say) then the kernel will call
back to rclone less often making it more efficient, however there is
more chance of the corruption issue above.
If files don't change on the remote outside of the control of rclone then there is no chance of corruption.
This is the same as setting the attr_timeout option in mount.fuse.
Note that all the rclone filters can be used to select a subset of the files to be visible in the mount.
When running rclone mount as a systemd service, it is possible to use Type=notify. In this case the service will enter the started state after the mountpoint has been successfully set up. Units having the rclone mount service specified as a requirement will see all files and folders immediately in this mode.
--vfs-read-chunk-size will enable reading the source objects in parts.
This can reduce the used download quota for some remotes by requesting only chunks
from the remote that are actually read at the cost of an increased number of requests.
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit is also specified and greater than
--vfs-read-chunk-size, the chunk size for each open file will get doubled
for each chunk read, until the specified value is reached. A value of
-1 will disable
the limit and the chunk size will grow indefinitely.
--vfs-read-chunk-size 100M and
the following parts will be downloaded: 0-100M, 100M-200M, 200M-300M, 300M-400M and so on.
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 500M is specified, the result would be
0-100M, 100M-300M, 300M-700M, 700M-1200M, 1200M-1700M and so on.
This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.
Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.
The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.
--dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a
directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the
backend. Changes made through the mount will appear immediately or
invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.
You can send a
SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all
directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one
rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:
kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)
If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:
rclone rc vfs/forget
Or individual files or directories:
rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir
--buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory,
that will be used to buffer data in advance.
Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.
This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.
The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to
--buffer-size * open files.
These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.
For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.
Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.
--cache-dir string Directory rclone will use for caching. --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s)
If run with
-vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The
files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but
can be controlled with
--cache-dir or setting the appropriate
The cache has 4 different modes selected by
The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the
cost of using disk space.
Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed and if they haven't been accessed for --vfs-write-back second. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same flags.
--vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size
for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every
--vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be
evicted from the cache.
You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache
with the same or overlapping remotes if using
--vfs-cache-mode > off.
This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work
around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with
--cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in
use don't overlap.
In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.
This will mean some operations are not possible
This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.
These operations are not possible
In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.
This mode should support all normal file system operations.
If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.
In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.
In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.
So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.
This mode should support all normal file system operations and is otherwise identical to --vfs-cache-mode writes.
When reading a file rclone will read --buffer-size plus --vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The --buffer-size is buffered in memory whereas the --vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.
When using this mode it is recommended that --buffer-size is not set too big and --vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.
IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.
These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons.
In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the --no-modtime flag (or use --use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each read of the modification time takes a transaction.
--no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --read-only Mount read-only.
When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This is advantageous because some cloud providers account for reads being all the data requested, not all the data delivered.
Rclone will keep doubling the chunk size requested starting at --vfs-read-chunk-size with a maximum of --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit unless it is set to "off" in which case there will be no limit.
--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix Max chunk doubling size (default "off")
Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.
--vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s)
When using VFS write caching (--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full), the global flag --transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of modified files from cache (the related global flag --checkers have no effect on mount).
--transfers int Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)
Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.
File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.
Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default
--vfs-case-insensitive mount flag controls how rclone handles these
two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the mounted
file system as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on
command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.
The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on mounted file system. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by an underlying mounted file system.
Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system mounted by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.
If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".
Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used.
If you need this information to be available when running
df on the
filesystem, then pass the flag
--vfs-used-is-size to rclone.
With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this
information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to
and compute the total used space itself.
WARNING. Contrary to
rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the
result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API
calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.
rclone mount remote:path /path/to/mountpoint [flags]
--allow-non-empty Allow mounting over a non-empty directory. Not supported on Windows. --allow-other Allow access to other users. Not supported on Windows. --allow-root Allow access to root user. Not supported on Windows. --async-read Use asynchronous reads. Not supported on Windows. (default true) --attr-timeout duration Time for which file/directory attributes are cached. (default 1s) --daemon Run mount as a daemon (background mode). Not supported on Windows. --daemon-timeout duration Time limit for rclone to respond to kernel. Not supported on Windows. --debug-fuse Debug the FUSE internals - needs -v. --default-permissions Makes kernel enforce access control based on the file mode. Not supported on Windows. --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s) --dir-perms FileMode Directory permissions (default 0777) --file-perms FileMode File permissions (default 0666) --fuse-flag stringArray Flags or arguments to be passed direct to libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required. --gid uint32 Override the gid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000) -h, --help help for mount --max-read-ahead SizeSuffix The number of bytes that can be prefetched for sequential reads. Not supported on Windows. (default 128Ki) --network-mode Mount as remote network drive, instead of fixed disk drive. Supported on Windows only --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --noappledouble Ignore Apple Double (._) and .DS_Store files. Supported on OSX only. (default true) --noapplexattr Ignore all "com.apple.*" extended attributes. Supported on OSX only. -o, --option stringArray Option for libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required. --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s) --read-only Mount read-only. --uid uint32 Override the uid field set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 1000) --umask int Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. Not supported on Windows. (default 2) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off) --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s) --vfs-case-insensitive If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match. --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full. --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128Mi) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off) --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking. (default 20ms) --vfs-used-is-size rclone size Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size. --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache. (default 5s) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error. (default 1s) --volname string Set the volume name. Supported on Windows and OSX only. --write-back-cache Makes kernel buffer writes before sending them to rclone. Without this, writethrough caching is used. Not supported on Windows.
See the global flags page for global options not listed here.