crypt remote encrypts and decrypts another remote.
To use it first set up the underlying remote following the config instructions for that remote. You can also use a local pathname instead of a remote which will encrypt and decrypt from that directory which might be useful for encrypting onto a USB stick for example.
First check your chosen remote is working - we’ll call it
remote:path in these docs. Note that anything inside
will be encrypted and anything outside won’t. This means that if you
are using a bucket based remote (eg S3, B2, swift) then you should
probably put the bucket in the remote
s3:bucket. If you just use
s3: then rclone will make encrypted bucket names too (if using file
name encryption) which may or may not be what you want.
rclone config. We will call this one
secret to differentiate it from the
No remotes found - make a new one n) New remote s) Set configuration password q) Quit config n/s/q> n name> secret Type of storage to configure. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Amazon Drive \ "amazon cloud drive" 2 / Amazon S3 (also Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio) \ "s3" 3 / Backblaze B2 \ "b2" 4 / Dropbox \ "dropbox" 5 / Encrypt/Decrypt a remote \ "crypt" 6 / Google Cloud Storage (this is not Google Drive) \ "google cloud storage" 7 / Google Drive \ "drive" 8 / Hubic \ "hubic" 9 / Local Disk \ "local" 10 / Microsoft OneDrive \ "onedrive" 11 / Openstack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH) \ "swift" 12 / SSH/SFTP Connection \ "sftp" 13 / Yandex Disk \ "yandex" Storage> 5 Remote to encrypt/decrypt. Normally should contain a ':' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended). remote> remote:path How to encrypt the filenames. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Don't encrypt the file names. Adds a ".bin" extension only. \ "off" 2 / Encrypt the filenames see the docs for the details. \ "standard" 3 / Very simple filename obfuscation. \ "obfuscate" filename_encryption> 2 Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact. Choose a number from below, or type in your own value 1 / Encrypt directory names. \ "true" 2 / Don't encrypt directory names, leave them intact. \ "false" filename_encryption> 1 Password or pass phrase for encryption. y) Yes type in my own password g) Generate random password y/g> y Enter the password: password: Confirm the password: password: Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended. Should be different to the previous password. y) Yes type in my own password g) Generate random password n) No leave this optional password blank y/g/n> g Password strength in bits. 64 is just about memorable 128 is secure 1024 is the maximum Bits> 128 Your password is: JAsJvRcgR-_veXNfy_sGmQ Use this password? y) Yes n) No y/n> y Remote config -------------------- [secret] remote = remote:path filename_encryption = standard password = *** ENCRYPTED *** password2 = *** ENCRYPTED *** -------------------- y) Yes this is OK e) Edit this remote d) Delete this remote y/e/d> y
Important The password is stored in the config file is lightly obscured so it isn’t immediately obvious what it is. It is in no way secure unless you use config file encryption.
A long passphrase is recommended, or you can use a random one. Note that if you reconfigure rclone with the same passwords/passphrases elsewhere it will be compatible - all the secrets used are derived from those two passwords/passphrases.
Note that rclone does not encrypt
In normal use, make sure the remote has a
: in. If you specify the
remote without a
: then rclone will use a local directory of that
name. So if you use a remote of
/path/to/secret/files then rclone
will encrypt stuff to that directory. If you use a remote of
then rclone will put files in a directory called
name in the current
If you specify the remote as
remote:path/to/dir then rclone will
store encrypted files in
path/to/dir on the remote. If you are using
file name encryption, then when you save files to
secret:subdir/subfile this will store them in the unencrypted path
path/to/dir but the
subdir/subpath bit will be encrypted.
Note that unless you want encrypted bucket names (which are difficult
to manage because you won’t know what directory they represent in web
interfaces etc), you should probably specify a bucket, eg
remote:secretbucket when using bucket based remotes such as S3,
Swift, Hubic, B2, GCS.
To test I made a little directory of files using “standard” file name encryption.
plaintext/ ├── file0.txt ├── file1.txt └── subdir ├── file2.txt ├── file3.txt └── subsubdir └── file4.txt
Copy these to the remote and list them back
$ rclone -q copy plaintext secret: $ rclone -q ls secret: 7 file1.txt 6 file0.txt 8 subdir/file2.txt 10 subdir/subsubdir/file4.txt 9 subdir/file3.txt
Now see what that looked like when encrypted
$ rclone -q ls remote:path 55 hagjclgavj2mbiqm6u6cnjjqcg 54 v05749mltvv1tf4onltun46gls 57 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/dlj7fkq4kdq72emafg7a7s41uo 58 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/7uu829995du6o42n32otfhjqp4/b9pausrfansjth5ob3jkdqd4lc 56 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/8njh1sk437gttmep3p70g81aps
Note that this retains the directory structure which means you can do this
$ rclone -q ls secret:subdir 8 file2.txt 9 file3.txt 10 subsubdir/file4.txt
If don’t use file name encryption then the remote will look like this
- note the
.bin extensions added to prevent the cloud provider
attempting to interpret the data.
$ rclone -q ls remote:path 54 file0.txt.bin 57 subdir/file3.txt.bin 56 subdir/file2.txt.bin 58 subdir/subsubdir/file4.txt.bin 55 file1.txt.bin
Here are some of the features of the file name encryption modes
This is a simple “rotate” of the filename, with each file having a rot distance based on the filename. We store the distance at the beginning of the filename. So a file called “hello” may become “53.jgnnq”
This is not a strong encryption of filenames, but it may stop automated scanning tools from picking up on filename patterns. As such it’s an intermediate between “off” and “standard”. The advantage is that it allows for longer path segment names.
There is a possibility with some unicode based filenames that the obfuscation is weak and may map lower case characters to upper case equivalents. You can not rely on this for strong protection.
Cloud storage systems have various limits on file name length and total path length which you are more likely to hit using “Standard” file name encryption. If you keep your file names to below 156 characters in length then you should be OK on all providers.
There may be an even more secure file name encryption mode in the future which will address the long file name problem.
Crypt offers the option of encrypting dir names or leaving them intact. There are two options:
Encrypts the whole file path including directory names
1/12/123.txt is encrypted to
Only encrypts file names, skips directory names
1/12/123.txt is encrypted to
Crypt stores modification times using the underlying remote so support depends on that.
Hashes are not stored for crypt. However the data integrity is protected by an extremely strong crypto authenticator.
Note that you should use the
rclone cryptcheck command to check the
integrity of a crypted remote instead of
rclone check which can’t
check the checksums properly.
Here are the command line options specific to this cloud storage system.
If this flag is set then for each file that the remote is asked to list, it will log (at level INFO) a line stating the decrypted file name and the encrypted file name.
This is so you can work out which encrypted names are which decrypted names just in case you need to do something with the encrypted file names, or for debugging purposes.
If you wish to backup a crypted remote, it it recommended that you use
rclone sync on the encrypted files, and make sure the passwords are
the same in the new encrypted remote.
This will have the following advantages
rclone syncwill check the checksums while copying
rclone checkbetween the encrypted remotes
For example, let’s say you have your original remote at
the encrypted version at
eremote: with path
would then set up the new remote
remote2: and then the encrypted
eremote2: with path
remote2:crypt using the same passwords
To sync the two remotes you would do
rclone sync remote:crypt remote2:crypt
And to check the integrity you would do
rclone check remote:crypt remote2:crypt
Files are encrypted 1:1 source file to destination object. The file has a header and is divided into chunks.
The initial nonce is generated from the operating systems crypto strong random number generator. The nonce is incremented for each chunk read making sure each nonce is unique for each block written. The chance of a nonce being re-used is minuscule. If you wrote an exabyte of data (10¹⁸ bytes) you would have a probability of approximately 2×10⁻³² of re-using a nonce.
Each chunk will contain 64kB of data, except for the last one which may have less data. The data chunk is in standard NACL secretbox format. Secretbox uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate messages.
Each chunk contains:
64k chunk size was chosen as the best performing chunk size (the authenticator takes too much time below this and the performance drops off due to cache effects above this). Note that these chunks are buffered in memory so they can’t be too big.
This uses a 32 byte (256 bit key) key derived from the user password.
1 byte file will encrypt to
49 bytes total
1MB (1048576 bytes) file will encrypt to
1049120 bytes total (a 0.05% overhead). This is the overhead for big files.
File names are encrypted segment by segment - the path is broken up
/ separated strings and these are encrypted individually.
File segments are padded using using PKCS#7 to a multiple of 16 bytes before encryption.
They are then encrypted with EME using AES with 256 bit key. EME (ECB-Mix-ECB) is a wide-block encryption mode presented in the 2003 paper “A Parallelizable Enciphering Mode” by Halevi and Rogaway.
This makes for deterministic encryption which is what we want - the same filename must encrypt to the same thing otherwise we can’t find it on the cloud storage system.
This means that
This uses a 32 byte key (256 bits) and a 16 byte (128 bits) IV both of which are derived from the user password.
After encryption they are written out using a modified version of
base32 encoding as described in RFC4648. The standard
encoding is modified in two ways:
base32 is used rather than the more efficient
base64 so rclone can be
used on case insensitive remotes (eg Windows, Amazon Drive).
scrypt with parameters
N=16384, r=8, p=1 with an
optional user supplied salt (password2) to derive the 32+32+16 = 80
bytes of key material required. If the user doesn’t supply a salt
then rclone uses an internal one.
scrypt makes it impractical to mount a dictionary attack on rclone
encrypted data. For full protection against this you should always use