Serve remote:path over DLNA
Run a DLNA media server for media stored in an rclone remote. Many devices, such as the Xbox and PlayStation, can automatically discover this server in the LAN and play audio/video from it. VLC is also supported. Service discovery uses UDP multicast packets (SSDP) and will thus only work on LANs.
Rclone will list all files present in the remote, without filtering based on media formats or file extensions. Additionally, there is no media transcoding support. This means that some players might show files that they are not able to play back correctly.
--addr to specify which IP address and port the server should
listen on, e.g.
--addr 188.8.131.52:8000 or
--addr :8080 to listen to all
--name to choose the friendly server name, which is by
default "rclone (hostname)".
--log-trace in conjunction with
-vv to enable additional debug
logging of all UPNP traffic.
This command uses the VFS layer. This adapts the cloud storage objects that rclone uses into something which looks much more like a disk filing system.
Cloud storage objects have lots of properties which aren't like disk files - you can't extend them or write to the middle of them, so the VFS layer has to deal with that. Because there is no one right way of doing this there are various options explained below.
The VFS layer also implements a directory cache - this caches info about files and directories (but not the data) in memory.
--dir-cache-time flag, you can control how long a
directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the
backend. Changes made through the VFS will appear immediately or
invalidate the cache.
--dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for (default 5m0s) --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable (default 1m0s)
However, changes made directly on the cloud storage by the web interface or a different copy of rclone will only be picked up once the directory cache expires if the backend configured does not support polling for changes. If the backend supports polling, changes will be picked up within the polling interval.
You can send a
SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all
directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one
rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:
kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)
If you configure rclone with a remote control then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:
rclone rc vfs/forget
Or individual files or directories:
rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir
--buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory,
that will be used to buffer data in advance.
Each open file will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one open file and won't be shared.
This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per open file. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used.
The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to
--buffer-size * open files.
These flags control the VFS file caching options. File caching is necessary to make the VFS layer appear compatible with a normal file system. It can be disabled at the cost of some compatibility.
For example you'll need to enable VFS caching if you want to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.
Note that the VFS cache is separate from the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.
--cache-dir string Directory rclone will use for caching. --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects (default 1m0s) --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache (default 5s)
If run with
-vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The
files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but
can be controlled with
--cache-dir or setting the appropriate
The cache has 4 different modes selected by
The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the
cost of using disk space.
Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are
closed and if they haven't been accessed for
seconds. If rclone is quit or dies with files that haven't been
uploaded, these will be uploaded next time rclone is run with the same
--vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size
for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every
--vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be
evicted from the cache.
You should not run two copies of rclone using the same VFS cache
with the same or overlapping remotes if using
--vfs-cache-mode > off.
This can potentially cause data corruption if you do. You can work
around this by giving each rclone its own cache hierarchy with
--cache-dir. You don't need to worry about this if the remotes in
use don't overlap.
In this mode (the default) the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.
This will mean some operations are not possible
This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disk. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.
These operations are not possible
In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.
This mode should support all normal file system operations.
If an upload fails it will be retried at exponentially increasing intervals up to 1 minute.
In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When data is read from the remote this is buffered to disk as well.
In this mode the files in the cache will be sparse files and rclone will keep track of which bits of the files it has downloaded.
So if an application only reads the starts of each file, then rclone will only buffer the start of the file. These files will appear to be their full size in the cache, but they will be sparse files with only the data that has been downloaded present in them.
This mode should support all normal file system operations and is
otherwise identical to
When reading a file rclone will read
--vfs-read-ahead bytes ahead. The
--buffer-size is buffered in memory
--vfs-read-ahead is buffered on disk.
When using this mode it is recommended that
--buffer-size is not set
too large and
--vfs-read-ahead is set large if required.
IMPORTANT not all file systems support sparse files. In particular FAT/exFAT do not. Rclone will perform very badly if the cache directory is on a filesystem which doesn't support sparse files and it will log an ERROR message if one is detected.
Various parts of the VFS use fingerprinting to see if a local file copy has changed relative to a remote file. Fingerprints are made from:
where available on an object.
On some backends some of these attributes are slow to read (they take an extra API call per object, or extra work per object).
hash is slow with the
sftp backends as
they have to read the entire file and hash it, and
modtime is slow
qinqstor backends because they
need to do an extra API call to fetch it.
If you use the
--vfs-fast-fingerprint flag then rclone will not
include the slow operations in the fingerprint. This makes the
fingerprinting less accurate but much faster and will improve the
opening time of cached files.
If you are running a vfs cache over
then using this flag is recommended.
Note that if you change the value of this flag, the fingerprints of the files in the cache may be invalidated and the files will need to be downloaded again.
When rclone reads files from a remote it reads them in chunks. This means that rather than requesting the whole file rclone reads the chunk specified. This can reduce the used download quota for some remotes by requesting only chunks from the remote that are actually read, at the cost of an increased number of requests.
These flags control the chunking:
--vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks (default 128M) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix Max chunk doubling size (default off)
Rclone will start reading a chunk of size
and then double the size for each read. When
specified, and greater than
--vfs-read-chunk-size, the chunk size for each
open file will get doubled only until the specified value is reached. If the
value is "off", which is the default, the limit is disabled and the chunk size
will grow indefinitely.
--vfs-read-chunk-size 100M and
the following parts will be downloaded: 0-100M, 100M-200M, 200M-300M, 300M-400M and so on.
--vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 500M is specified, the result would be
0-100M, 100M-300M, 300M-700M, 700M-1200M, 1200M-1700M and so on.
0 or "off" disables chunked reading.
These flags may be used to enable/disable features of the VFS for performance or other reasons. See also the chunked reading feature.
In particular S3 and Swift benefit hugely from the
--use-server-modtime for a slightly different effect) as each
read of the modification time takes a transaction.
--no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download. --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up). --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files. --read-only Only allow read-only access.
Sometimes rclone is delivered reads or writes out of order. Rather than seeking rclone will wait a short time for the in sequence read or write to come in. These flags only come into effect when not using an on disk cache file.
--vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking (default 20ms) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error (default 1s)
When using VFS write caching (
--vfs-cache-mode with value writes or full),
the global flag
--transfers can be set to adjust the number of parallel uploads of
modified files from the cache (the related global flag
--checkers has no effect on the VFS).
--transfers int Number of file transfers to run in parallel (default 4)
Linux file systems are case-sensitive: two files can differ only by case, and the exact case must be used when opening a file.
File systems in modern Windows are case-insensitive but case-preserving: although existing files can be opened using any case, the exact case used to create the file is preserved and available for programs to query. It is not allowed for two files in the same directory to differ only by case.
Usually file systems on macOS are case-insensitive. It is possible to make macOS file systems case-sensitive but that is not the default.
--vfs-case-insensitive VFS flag controls how rclone handles these
two cases. If its value is "false", rclone passes file names to the remote
as-is. If the flag is "true" (or appears without a value on the
command line), rclone may perform a "fixup" as explained below.
The user may specify a file name to open/delete/rename/etc with a case different than what is stored on the remote. If an argument refers to an existing file with exactly the same name, then the case of the existing file on the disk will be used. However, if a file name with exactly the same name is not found but a name differing only by case exists, rclone will transparently fixup the name. This fixup happens only when an existing file is requested. Case sensitivity of file names created anew by rclone is controlled by the underlying remote.
Note that case sensitivity of the operating system running rclone (the target) may differ from case sensitivity of a file system presented by rclone (the source). The flag controls whether "fixup" is performed to satisfy the target.
If the flag is not provided on the command line, then its default value depends on the operating system where rclone runs: "true" on Windows and macOS, "false" otherwise. If the flag is provided without a value, then it is "true".
This flag allows you to manually set the statistics about the filing system. It can be useful when those statistics cannot be read correctly automatically.
--vfs-disk-space-total-size Manually set the total disk space size (example: 256G, default: -1)
Some backends, most notably S3, do not report the amount of bytes used.
If you need this information to be available when running
df on the
filesystem, then pass the flag
--vfs-used-is-size to rclone.
With this flag set, instead of relying on the backend to report this
information, rclone will scan the whole remote similar to
and compute the total used space itself.
WARNING. Contrary to
rclone size, this flag ignores filters so that the
result is accurate. However, this is very inefficient and may cost lots of API
calls resulting in extra charges. Use it as a last resort and only with caching.
rclone serve dlna remote:path [flags]
--addr string The ip:port or :port to bind the DLNA http server to (default ":7879") --dir-cache-time duration Time to cache directory entries for (default 5m0s) --dir-perms FileMode Directory permissions (default 0777) --file-perms FileMode File permissions (default 0666) --gid uint32 Override the gid field set by the filesystem (not supported on Windows) (default 1000) -h, --help help for dlna --log-trace Enable trace logging of SOAP traffic --name string Name of DLNA server --no-checksum Don't compare checksums on up/download --no-modtime Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up) --no-seek Don't allow seeking in files --poll-interval duration Time to wait between polling for changes, must be smaller than dir-cache-time and only on supported remotes (set 0 to disable) (default 1m0s) --read-only Only allow read-only access --uid uint32 Override the uid field set by the filesystem (not supported on Windows) (default 1000) --umask int Override the permission bits set by the filesystem (not supported on Windows) (default 2) --vfs-cache-max-age duration Max age of objects in the cache (default 1h0m0s) --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix Max total size of objects in the cache (default off) --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off) --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration Interval to poll the cache for stale objects (default 1m0s) --vfs-case-insensitive If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match --vfs-disk-space-total-size SizeSuffix Specify the total space of disk (default off) --vfs-fast-fingerprint Use fast (less accurate) fingerprints for change detection --vfs-read-ahead SizeSuffix Extra read ahead over --buffer-size when using cache-mode full --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix Read the source objects in chunks (default 128Mi) --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached ('off' is unlimited) (default off) --vfs-read-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence read before seeking (default 20ms) --vfs-used-is-size rclone size Use the rclone size algorithm for Used size --vfs-write-back duration Time to writeback files after last use when using cache (default 5s) --vfs-write-wait duration Time to wait for in-sequence write before giving error (default 1s)
See the global flags page for global options not listed here.